Matteo Manferdini is a freelance developer and author with a long experience in iOS development. Every second Tuesday, we send a newsletter with useful techniques on front-end and UX. In the long term, though, all of this code piles up and becomes hard to read, modify, reuse and test. The app itself will contain only two screens, one with the list of to-do items and one to add new items to the list.
Despite being a simple app, it lends itself very well to exposing the pitfalls of architecting iOS apps. I will show you the common mistakes I have seen many times and that I have done myself, as well as a better way to follow the model-view-controller MVC pattern and the reasoning behind it.
When you are starting to learn iOS development, it might not be evident why this is so, but as you gain experience with the platform, the reasons become quite straightforward. The tag is just an integer, and as such it does not really say much about what we are trying to encode in it. For this reason, it has the following problems:. If you were using this approach before, you can now understand that this is indeed good advice and that you should not do this in your apps.
That example has been there since the document was created and is the reason I myself used that method for a while. Granted, below that example is indeed another one that uses outlets.
But that one, while better, is still, in my opinion, not the best way to implement this. This example is not the only unfortunate case of misleading Apple documentation.Wessex dragon tuba
The tutorial itself follows practices that are not really the best for MVC patterns. On the one hand, I understand that Apple does not want to overwhelm new developers with advanced concepts from the get go. This is not new. There was another tutorial with the same name, implemented in Objective-C, that is not available anymore. That tutorial also suffered from the same poor architectural decision that the newer one follows. Although that tutorial is not available anymore, in this article I will reimplement the app presented in it, with a more solid architecture, using Swift.Learn more When we develop apps for the iPad, Apple does not allow us direct access to any of this hardware.
In fact, all hardware interaction takes place exclusively through a number of different layers of software which act as intermediaries between the application code and device hardware. These layers make up what is known as an operating system.
Architecture overview Diagram for ppt ( Block Diagram)
In the case of the iPad, this operating system is known as iOS. In order to gain a better understanding of the iPad development environment, this chapter will look in detail at the different layers that comprise the iOS 5 operating system and the frameworks that allow us, as developers, to write iPad applications.
Prior to the release of the iPad inthe operating system running on the iPhone was generally referred to as iPhone OS. Instead, Apple decided to adopt a more generic and non-device specific name for the operating system. Unfortunately, iOS is also the name used by Cisco for the operating system on its routers Apple, it seems, also has a predilection for ignoring trademarks. As previously mentioned, iOS consists of a number of different software layers, each of which provides programming frameworks for the development of applications that run on top of the underlying hardware.
Some diagrams designed to graphically depict the iOS software stack show an additional box positioned above the Cocoa Touch layer to indicate the applications running on the device.
In the above diagram we have not done so since this would suggest that the only interface available to the app is Cocoa Touch. In practice, an app can directly call down any of the layers of the stack to perform tasks on the physical device.
iOS Tutorial in PDF
That said, however, each operating system layer provides an increasing level of abstraction away from the complexity of working with the hardware. As an iOS developer you should, therefore, always look for solutions to your programming goals in the frameworks located in the higher level iOS layers before resorting to writing code that reaches down to the lower level layers.
In general, the higher level of layer you program to, the less effort and fewer lines of code you will have to write to achieve your objective. And as any veteran programmer will tell you, the less code you have to write the less opportunity you have to introduce bugs. Now that we have identified the various layers that comprise iOS 5 we can now look in more detail at the services provided by each layer and the corresponding frameworks that make those services available to us as application developers.
The Cocoa Touch layer sits at the top of the iOS stack and contains the frameworks that are most commonly used by iPad application developers. It is, without question, the framework with which you will spend most of your time working.In our previous Android Tutorialswe have discussed quite a few concepts of Android development. However, while browsing through the articles, I discovered that we have not had a proper discussion about Android Architecture. Because it is one of the most elementary concepts of Android development, I decided to back up a little, and take a quick walk through the Android Architecture.
If you wish to strengthen your basic concepts of Android and expand your career opportunities in the same, taking up an online Android Certification training is one of the best ways to do so.
The Android stack, as the folks over at Google call it, has a number of layers, and each layer groups together several programs. At the bottom of the Android stack is the Linux Kernel. It never really interacts with the users and developers, but is at the heart of the whole system. Its importance stems from the fact that it provides the following functions in the Android system:.
5 iOS Architectures in
With the evolution of Android, the Linux kernels it runs on have evolved too. Libraries carry a set of instructions to guide the device in handling different types of data. For instance, the playback and recording of various audio and video formats is guided by the Media Framework Library. Located on the same level as the libraries layer, the Android runtime layer includes a set of core Java libraries as well.
Android application programmers build their apps using the Java programming language. It also includes the Dalvik Virtual Machine. Dalvik is open-source software. It is the software responsible for running apps on Android devices.
Our applications directly interact with these blocks of the Android architecture. These programs manage the basic functions of phone like resource management, voice call management etc. The applications are at the topmost layer of the Android stack.
An average user of the Android device would mostly interact with this layer for basic functions, such as making phone calls, accessing the Web browser etc. The layers further down are accessed mostly by developers, programmers and the likes. Several standard applications come installed with every device, such as:. We hope you are clear with the basic Android architecture now!
If not, please feel free to ask our experts! Stay tuned for more advanced tutorials of Android. Android Project : BlackJack Game. Top 5 Android Interview Questions for freshers.
Android Tutorials for Beginners: Activity component. Already have an account? Sign in.In order to better understand what smartphone apps landscape architects use to conceptualize, design, and construct projects, ASLA recently surveyed practicing landscape architects, students, and university faculty from around the world.
In this three-part series, we summarize the results of the survey, which yielded more than responses over two weeks. Our goal is to let landscape architects know about all the useful apps they might not be aware of, and how these tools can be incorporated into increasingly multimedia design processes. Some 64 percent of survey respondents are registered landscape architects. And 78 percent are ASLA members, of which 15 percent are associate and student members and 8 percent are fellows.
The survey assessed smartphone app use during multiple phases areas of the design process: site analysis, conceptualization and design, design reference, plant identification and selection, construction, and presentation. Respondents were asked which app they use most during each of these phases, how frequently they use that app, and who recommended it to them.
Others were informed about these apps through their university or by co-workers. The newest version of the Google Earth app allows users to search for exact locations as well as turn on and off layers that include streets names, borders, and photography. Through the 3-D street view option, users can get a real sense of what places are like on the ground. The iPhone camera has 8 megapixels, exposure controls, and panorama options.
It also can shoot HD, slo-mo, and time-lapse video. The android camera offers similar features. For any given area, the app show navigation values such as latitude, longitude, altitude, and sun and moon data. Routes, tracks, and waypoints drawn in the app can be exported to Google Earth and Google Maps. The app can display the slope in degrees, percentage, or rise over run. It can also be used as a level for simple tasks like aligning a frame or a presentation board.Model train accessories
Not only can you quickly measure lawns, lot sizes, buildings, and paving from a satellite map, you can also measure a specific area by walking or driving around it. Some 44 percent of respondents used a smartphone app when conceptualizing and designing all or most projects, whereas 27 percent of respondents never use an app when working through this stage of a landscape project.
Some 70 percent said they discovered the app on their own, while 14 percent said their firm encouraged them to use it. Paper by FiftyThree free; ios : Paper is a digital notebook app that allows you to quickly sketch, write, draw, outline, and color on a clean interface that mimics real paper.
It also includes tools that allow users to quickly create charts and diagrams for quick note-taking. Special pencils and styluses can be purchased to make drawing and note-taking easier on an iPad.
Images can also be saved for offline viewing or shared with others through the app. Painting layers can be controlled with different blending modes, allowing users to create artwork as they would in Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator, or in real life. Morpholio Trace free; ios : Morpholio Trace allows uses to quickly draw on top of imported images, drawings, and photos to comment on plans, progress images, or other drawings.
Users can choose from a variety of trace papers such as yellow trace, vellum, or blueprint and use a variety of pens will different line types, colors, and sizes. Just as in real life, layers of digital trace can be added on top of each to build on ideas. Some 47 percent of respondents said they used a smartphone app as a design reference tool for every or most projects, whereas 28 percent of respondents have never done so.
Many landscape architects identified a need for better design reference apps.There are n numbers of users who use computer network and are located over the world. So to ensure, national and worldwide data communication, systems must be developed which are compatible to communicate with each other ISO has developed a standard. ISO stands for International organization of Standardization. It defines seven layers or levels in a complete communication system.
They are:.Understanding Architecture of iOS I MVC Design Patterns I iOS Development Tutorial - Edureka
Below we have the complete representation of the OSI model, showcasing all the layers and how they communicate with each other. In the table below, we have specified the protocols used and the data unit exchanged by each layer of the OSI Model. The OSI reference model has 7 layers. The principles that were applied to arrive at the seven layers can be briefly summarized as follows:.
Following are the functions performed by each layer of the OSI model. This is just an introduction, we will cover each layer in details in the coming tutorials. Transport layer breaks the message data into small units so that they are handled more efficiently by the network layer.
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Computer Architecture. Jenkins Maven. Apache Cordova Drools. We are Hiring! Sign in. Available on:.Smartphones have become an essential part of our daily lives. The rapidly growing mobile technology is paralleled by countless innovations in mobile application development. These innovations have extended to the field of architecture. New handy architecture apps and enhanced versions of already existing apps are developed yearly.
These apps cover architecture related activities like sketching, 3D modeling, photo editing, and other stuff that might not have crossed your mind.
This app functions like a tracing paper. It allows users to draw on imported images and add comments and pointers on separate layers. It is very popular and handy. It works on iPad Pro and requires Apple Pencil for sketching. Download from: iTunes. AutoCAD is used for viewing and editing 2D and 3D drawings, in addition to other helpful tasks like taking measurements on site and annotating drawings.
It can be used for faster communication since the edited and annotated images can be shared through the app.
Download from: iTunesGoogle. The popular is characterized by a user-friendly interface. It combines the best of both, BIM and mobile technology. Sketchbook is an easy-to-use app for all kinds of users interested in drawing and painting.
One of its advantageous features is the time-lapse recording tool. It can help architects with explaining their design ideas through the recorded sketching process. It enables its users to draw sketches fast and easy, then turns them instantaneously into 3D forms.
The app has a user-friendly interface, controlled by the thumb and the Apple pencil. According to the developers, the app is highly accurate and built for professionals. This app generates interior plan drawings by detecting the walls and openings. All the user needs to do is stand in the middle of a room and take pictures of its corners.Iclone clothes pack
It provides its users with helpful site information which makes it easier to generate contextual forms and decide on other early design related issues.
The neatly designed app, still undergoing development, allows its users to import images and draw on them to scale, which is the new part. The app offers its users new handy specifications with every update. This architecture designing app can be used for sharing and digitally reviewing drawings and sketches. It allows its users to make incremental changes to designs and drawings, without the need for printing and tracing paper.
The Beginner’s Guide to Android: Android Architecture
The concept gives its users instantaneous calculations for the dimensions of variable structure systemsbased on the ratio between span and depth. It also shows the user existing projects employing similar structure systems, making it easier for them to visualize how their own designs would actually look.
This app is helpful for generating field trip and site visit reports. It organizes all the sketches, notes, and photographs taken during the visit, automatically, and produces a report which can be made into PDF format, modified, and shared with colleagues or clients. It is a photo-editing app developed by Autodesk. It makes it possible to enhance the quality of architectural images through the use of masks and overlays, among a wide variety of options, not available on other free photo-editing apps.
The viewing app is used for 3D SketchUp models. It provides measurement tools, dimensions, as well as, section and plans views. This app helps architects to decide on the right orientation for their buildings by providing data like the solar path, the winter and summer solstice paths, and sunrise and sunset times. Check Our List. Coffee Break.Create react app ssr
Related Articles.Android operating system is a stack of software components which is roughly divided into five sections and four main layers as shown below in the architecture diagram. At the bottom of the layers is Linux - Linux 3. This provides a level of abstraction between the device hardware and it contains all the essential hardware drivers like camera, keypad, display etc.
Also, the kernel handles all the things that Linux is really good at such as networking and a vast array of device drivers, which take the pain out of interfacing to peripheral hardware.
On top of Linux kernel there is a set of libraries including open-source Web browser engine WebKit, well known library libc, SQLite database which is a useful repository for storage and sharing of application data, libraries to play and record audio and video, SSL libraries responsible for Internet security etc.
This category encompasses those Java-based libraries that are specific to Android development. Examples of libraries in this category include the application framework libraries in addition to those that facilitate user interface building, graphics drawing and database access. This is the third section of the architecture and available on the second layer from the bottom.
This section provides a key component called Dalvik Virtual Machine which is a kind of Java Virtual Machine specially designed and optimized for Android. The Dalvik VM makes use of Linux core features like memory management and multi-threading, which is intrinsic in the Java language.
The Dalvik VM enables every Android application to run in its own process, with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual machine. The Android runtime also provides a set of core libraries which enable Android application developers to write Android applications using standard Java programming language.Python mooc
The Application Framework layer provides many higher-level services to applications in the form of Java classes. Application developers are allowed to make use of these services in their applications. You will find all the Android application at the top layer. You will write your application to be installed on this layer only. Examples of such applications are Contacts Books, Browser, Games etc.
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